Genesis and Soil Cartography Museum
The museum of Genesis and Soil Cartography is the only museum of soils in Ukraine in which a collection (monoliths of a meter and a half) of soils from different natural (landscape) zones of the state are gathered. Here you may find the soils from Woodlands, Forest-steppe, Steppe (north, ordinary, south and dry), mountains: the Carpathians, Crimea; ancient Oregon –Donbass. In total, the museum has 156 soil monoliths that encompass main types, subtypes, kinds, species, types and categories of complicated soil gamut of Ukraine. According to the zones the soils are given in the following order: 1) Woodlands (sod-podzolic, sod-podzolic glay, marsh and peat); 2) Forest-steppe (ashed soils: light-grey, grey, dark-grey, ashed chernozem, regarded soils, ordinary and leached soils black soils); 3) Steppe (ordinary south chernozems, brown and dark-brown soils; 4) the Carpathians (typical ashed brown, their glay analogs, ashed glay brown); 5) Mountain Crimea (brown soils); 6) Dry Subtropics of the Crimean peninsula south coast (reddish-brown and red-brown soils).
Besides, the museum demonstrates the samples (monoliths) of salt, saline and solodized soils, that can be found practically in all natural climatic zones of Ukraine; meadowy, meadow marsh and marsh soils of Ukrainian rivers floodplains can also be seen in the museum.
Along with Ukrainian soils, separate types of Russian soils are presented in the Museum of Soils. These are typical chornozems, ashed and alomorfnyi soils from B’elgorod region, 2,5…3,0 meters deep profiles of pre-Caucasus chernozems, fusion chernozems from Krasnodar region, typical grey soils for loess from Samarkand region in Uzbekistan; typical krasnozems and yellow soils from Chakva and Batumi in Georgia, yellow soils from Sukhumi in Abkhazia, krasnozems, brown and dark-brown soils from Oriente province in Cuba.
001. Sod-podzolic gley soil on ground water in glacial sediments. Kyiv woodland.
019. Humus-carbonate soils (rendzyna) on limestone eluvium. Small Woodland, L’viv region.
021. Light-grey ashed soil on red-brown gley. Forest-steppe, Kharkiv region.
026. Dark-grey ashed soil on loess-like loam. Forest-steppe, Poltava region.
029. Grey ashed soil on loess-like loam. Forest-steppe, Kharkiv region.
042. Ashed black soil on loess-like loam. Forest-steppe, Chernigiv region.
124. Typical deep chernozem on loess-like loam. Forest-steppe, Kharkiv region.
071. Typical chornozem on loess. Steppe, Zaporizhye region.
074. South chernozem on loess. Steppe, Odessa region.
098. Deep lowland eutotrophic peat bog soil. Forest-steppe, L’viv region, v. Dubl’any
102. Brown soil on eluvium of dense limestones. Crimean submountain.
108. Red feralitic soil on serpentine eluvium. Cuba, Oriente, tropics.
131. Dark-brown medium alkaline soil on loess. Steppe, Mykolayev region.
134. Chloride-sulfate salt marshes on the loess loam. Steppe, Kherson region.
135. Solonets medium chestnut sulfate chloride salt in clay. Crimea.
The staff of Soil Science chair began to form the collection of the museum under the direction of Professor-assistant G. S. Gryn’ in the middle of the XXth century. About 50 monoliths of 1 meter deep were selected. They were placed in classroom 24 of Soil science chair in Dzerzhyns’kyi Street in Kharkiv. The lectures on “Partly Soil Science” had been delivered in that very classroom till 1977 (it was the date when the chair of Soil Science and the department of Agrochemistry and Soil Science moved to a new educational and productive basis in the territory of scientific and research farm “Dokuchayevs’ke”).
The monoliths of the present Museum of Soils were selected by the 3d year students of Agrochemistry and Soil department in 1962-1972 under the directions of A. O. Georgi, D. G. Tykhonenko and, partly, M. O. Gorin, who guided forwarding and zone students practice. Soil monoliths preparation was done by A. O. Georgi and D. G. Tykhonenko (1967-1972). Shifting of the museum was done by the head of Genesis and Soil Cartography V. S.
Soil monoliths from Cuba were selected by Professor M. I. Polupan, who worked as a Professor of Havana university.
Krasnozems and yellow soils of Georgia and Abkhazia were selected by the 3d year students of Agrochemistry and Soil science department during their educational practice under the guidance of current professors V. V. Degt’arov and M. O. Gorin. The monolith of grey soil was presented by soil scientists from Uzbekistan.
All the soils in the museum have Ukrainian soil nomenclature WAB-World Absract Basis. Translations of soil names from English into Russian were done by Professor S. M. Pol’chyna.
Three maps of soils are demonstrated in the Museum of Soils: 1) world soils map on a scale 1:10000000; 2) soil map of former USSR (scale 1:5000000) and3) soil map of Ukraine on a scale 1:750000.
The significance of soils is difficult to overestimate. The soil is the basis of nutrition for all living things, animals and people on our planet. There is no other source of receiving food. More than 93% of food products people get from soil. That is why it is very important to carefully use, protect and preserve soils. This fact is well understand by the students after studying the course of Soil science” and by excursionists that often visit the Museum of Soils. For its qualitative and productive work, dissemination of information about studying and significance of soils in the life of our state the Museum of Genesis and Soil Cartography was awarded the State prize- the Gold medal of International exhibition “Agro-2013”.
Professor D. G. Tykhonenko.
Professor-assistant K. B. Novossad.